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 Lectia 3:Adjectivul

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MesajSubiect: Lectia 3:Adjectivul   Dum Noi 08, 2009 10:12 pm

Forma adjectivului

Adjectivele sunt invariabile. Ele nu îsi schimba forma în functie de gen sau numar.
Ex.: A hot potato, some hot potatoes.

Pentru a sublinia sau accentua sensul unui adjectiv se pot folosi very, really:
Ex.: A very hot potato, some really hot potatoes.

Pozitia adjectivului

* De obicei adjectivul se aseaza în fata substantivului determinat:
Ex.: A good movie.
* Dupa verbe auxiliare ca to be, to become, to seem, to look, to taste, to appear, to feel, to keep, to make, to smell, to sound, to turn, etc:
Ex.: The movie is good.
You seem upset.
This cheese tastes different.
* Dupa substantiv în expresii fixe:
Ex.: the Princess Royal, the President elect, the court martial
* Câteva adjective, ca de exemplu chief, main, poor (=unfortunate) stau numai în fata substantivului determinat:
Ex.: This is the main purpose of the meeting.
That poor woman was living in a garage.
* Altele pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep, upset, awake, afraid, alike, alive, alone, annoyed, ill, well, sorry
Ex.: He's asleep.
I'm alone.
* Unele adjective îsi schimba sensul în functie de pozitia pe care o ocupa. Adjectivele involved, present, concerned au sens diferit daca sunt plasate în fata substantivului sau dupa acesta.
Ex.: These are the people involved / concerned. (the people who have something to do with the matter)
They had an involved discussion on the matter. (detailed, complex)
I am a concerned mother. (worried, anxious)
The list of the students present is outside, on the door. (students who were there)
The present status of the matter requires urgent attention. (current)

Functiile adjectivului

Adjectivul ne spune mai multe despre calitatile substantivul determinat. Adjectivele pot exprima:

* Sentimente sau calitati:
Ex.: They make an original couple.
She is a single mother.
* Nationalitatea sau originea:
Ex.: Ricardo is Spanish. His mother is Argentinean and his father is Canadian.
I bought him a Swiss watch for Christmas.
* Diferite caracteristici ale unui obiect:
Ex.: The table is long.
The steel tray was a gift.
* Vârsta:
Ex.: My hat is too old. I will buy another one.
He is still very young, almost a boy.
* Dimensiuni, marime si masuri:
Ex.: "Gone with the Wind" is a very long film.
That boy is too tall.
* Culoarea:
Ex.: I have a red jacket to go with my new white skirt.
* Materie / material:
Ex.: He wore a cotton shirt.
It was a silver tray, not a steel tray.
* Forma:
Ex.: A rectangular envelope.
A round table.
* Judecati, pareri sau opinii:
Ex.: Grammar is fascinating.
The show was entertaining.

Ordinea adjectivelor

Atunci când se folosesc doua sau mai multe adjective pentru a descrie acelasi substantiv, ordinea lor depinde de functiile acestora. Exista mai multe variante, dar cea mai obisnuita ordine este: Value/opinion, Size, Age/Temperature, Shape, Colour, Origin, Material

Value/opinion


delicious, lovely, charming

Size


small, huge, tiny

Age/Temperature


old, hot, young, little

Shape


round, square, rectangular

Colour


red, blonde, black

Origin


Swedish, Victorian, Chinese

Material


plastic, wooden, silver

Exemple:
a green round plastic bucket
an elegant little French clock
a small round wooden table

Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor

Formarea comparativului si superlativului

Exista trei grade de comparatie ale adjectivelor: pozitiv (înalt), comparativ (mai înalt), superlativ (cel mai înalt). În limba engleza, comparativul si superlativul se formeaza astfel:

Numar de silabe (Pozitiv)


Comparativ


Superlativ

o silaba


+ -er


+ -est

tall


taller


tallest

Adjectivele formate dintr-o silaba [consoana + o vocala + consoana] vor dubla consoana finala:

fat


fatter


fattest

big


bigger


biggest

sad


sadder


saddest

doua silabe


+ -er SAU more + adj


+ -est SAU most + adj

+ Adjectivele terminate în: -y, -ly, -ow
+ Adjectivele terminate în: -le, -er sau -ure
+ Urmatoarele adjective: handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiet

happy


happier/ more happy


happiest/ most happy

yellow


yellower/ more yellow


yellowest/ most yellow

simple


simpler/ more simple


simplest/ most simple

tender


tenderer/ more tender


tenderest/ most tender

Daca nu esti sigur, foloseste more + adj SAU most + adj.
Nota: Adjectivele terminate în -y ca de exemplu happy, pretty, busy, sunny, lucky etc. vor înlocui -y cu -ier sau -iest la forma comparativa si superlativa:

busy


busier


busiest

trei sau mai multe silabe


more + adj


most + adj

important


more important


most important

expensive


more expensive


most expensive

Exemple:
a. A cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastest.
b. A car is heavy, a truck is heavier, but a train is the heaviest.
c. A park bench is comfortable, a restaurant chair is more comfortable, but a sofa is the most comfortable.

Forme neregulate

Urmatoarele adjective au forme de comparativ si superlativ total neregulate:

Pozitiv


Comparativ


Superlativ

good


better


best

bad


worse


worst

little


less


least

old


older / elder


oldest / eldest

much / many


more


most

far


further / farther


Comparatia adjectivelor

* the + superlative
Ex.: This is the oldest theater in London.
* comparative + than - pentru a compara diferentele dintre doua obiecte, evenimente sau fiinte:
Ex.: He makes fewer mistakes than you do.
Thailand is sunnier than Norway.
Albert is more intelligent than Arthur.
* as + adjective + as - constructie folosita pentru a compara oameni, locuri, fiinte, evenimete sau obiecte, între care nu exista diferente:
Ex.: Peter is 24 years old. John is 24 years old. Peter is as old as John.
Ramona is as happy as Raphael.
A tiger is as dangerous as a lion.
* not as + adjective + as - putem arata diferentele dintre doua substantive folosind contructia not so/as ...as:
Ex.: Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everest.
Norway is not as sunny as Thailand
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