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 Lectia 4:Adverbul

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MesajSubiect: Lectia 4:Adverbul   Dum Noi 08, 2009 10:14 pm

Adverbele sunt cuvinte care ne spun mai multe despre cum , unde, când, cât de frecvent sau în ce măsura are loc o actiune.

Functia adverbelor

Astfel, adverbele determina în general verbe:
Ex.: The bus moved slowly. (cum?)
I am going home tomorrow. (când?)

Adverbele pot determina si adjective: You look absolutely fabulous!
Sau alte adverbe: She played the violin extremely well. You're speaking too quietly.
Sau chiar propozitii intregi: Perhaps we'll see you again next year.

Forma adverbelor

Adverbele se formeaza de cele mai multe ori prin adaugarea unui -ly la forma de singular a adjectivului:

Adjectiv


Adverb
(Adjectiv + ly)


Exemple

careful


carefully


He carefully picked up a tie.

quick


quickly


Time goes quickly.

slow


slowly


He walked slowly to the door.

Modificari ortografice:

* Daca adjectivul se termina in -y, acesta se va inlocui cu -i + -ly.
Ex.: easy - easily, angry - angrily, lucky - luckily
* Când avem un -le terminal (-able, -ible, -le), dispare -e si este inlocuit cu -y.
Ex.: probable - probably, terrible - terribly, gentle - gently
* Adjectivele terminate in -ic adauga -ally.
Ex.: basic - basically, economic - economically, tragic - tragically
Exceptie: public - publicly
* Forme neregulate
Ex.: true - truly, due - duly, whole - wholly

Unele adverbe au aceeasi forma ca si adjectivele:
Ex.: early, fast, hard, high, late, near, straight, wrong

Compara:
This is a hard exercise. (adjectiv)
He works hard. (adverb)
We saw many high buildings. (adjectiv)
The bird flew high in the sky. (adverb)

Unor adjective le corespund doua forme adverbiale, care au sensuri diferite:

Adjectiv


Forme adverbiale


Exemple

deep


1. deep
2. deeply


He looked deep into her eyes. (adanc)
She is deeply in love. (profund, pâna peste cap)

direct


1. direct
2. directly


You can dial New York direct. (în mod direct)
He went there directly. (direct, fara întârziere)

first


1. first
2. firstly


My mother came in first, then my brothers and sisters. (întâi)
Firstly, I would like to welcome you here. (în primul rând)

Alte exemple: hard, light, just, last, late, most, near, prett, right, round, short, wrong.




Well / Good
Well este adverbul care corespunde formei adjectivale good.

They are good swimmers.
They swim well.

She is a good pianist.
She plays the piano well.

Gradele de comparatie ale adverbelor

Adverbele formeaza comparativul si superlativul la fel ca si adjectivele (vezi: 3.5. Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor):

* Adauga -er pentru comparativ si -est pentru superlativ la adverbele dintr-o singura silaba: hard - harder - hardest
* Adauga more pentru comparativ si most pentru superlativ la adverbele formate din doua sau mai multe silabe si la cele terminate in -ly: seriously - more seriously - most seriously
* Unele adverbe au forme neregulate la comparativ si superlativ: badly - worse - worst, little - less - least, well - better - best, much - more - most

De retinut! Uneori most poate avea sensul de very:
We were most grateful for your help.
I am most impressed by this application.

Clasificarea adverbelor

1. Adverbe de mod
2. Adverbe de loc si directie
3. Adverbe de timp, durata si frecventa
4. Adverbe de probabilitate
5. Adverbe de grad

Adverbe de mod

Adverbele de mod ne arata cum, in ce mod are loc o actiune. Ele se aseaza in propozitie dupa verb sau dupa complementul acestuia.
Exemple:
He swims well. (dupa verb)
He ran... rapidly, slowly, quickly.
She spoke... softly, loudly, aggressively.
James coughed loudly to attract her attention.
He plays the flute beautifully. (dupa complement)
He ate the chocolate cake greedily.




1. Adverbul de mod nu se aseaza între verb si complement:
Incorect: He ate greedily the chocolate cake.
Corect: He ate the chocolate cake greedily.

2. Pozitia adverbului în propozitie este foarte importanta mai ales atunci când exista mai multe verbe în propozitie. Daca adverbul este asezat dupa o propozitie, atunci acesta modifica întregul sens exprimat în propozitie.
Observa diferentele de sens în functie de locul adverbului în propozitie:
He quietly asked me to leave the house. (= cererea lui a fost facuta în liniste)
He asked me to leave the house quietly. (= plecarea a fost facuta în liniste)

Adverbe de loc si directie

Ne arata unde are loc actiunea verbului. Se aseaza in general dupa verbul principal sau complementul sau.
Exemple:
Dupa verb:
I looked everywhere.
John looked ...away, up, down, around...
I'm going ...home, out, back...
Dupa complement:
They built a house nearby.
She took the child outside.

A. Here / there. Cu verbe de miscare, here exprima ideea de înspre/ cu / împreuna cu vorbitorul, iar there contrariul, departe, fara participarea vorbitorului:
Ex.: Come here (= spre mine)
It's in here (= vino impreuna cu mine sa vezi)
Put it there (= departe de mine)
It's in there (= du-te singur sa vezi)

Expresii cu here/ there: down here, down there, over here, over there, under here, under there, up here, up there.

B. Adverbele de loc terminate în -wards - exprima ideea de miscare într-o anumita directie:
Ex.: backwards, forwards, downwards, upwards, inwards, outwards, northwards, southwards, eastwards, westwards, homewards, onwards.
Cats don't usually walk backwards.
The ship sailed westwards.

De retinut! Towards este prepozitie, nu adverb, astfel încât va fi întotdeauna urmat de un substantiv sau pronume:
Ex.: He walked towards the car. She ran towards me.

C. Adverbe care exprima atât locul cât si directia: ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill, downhill, sideways, indoors, outdoors.

Adverbe de timp, durata si frecventa

Arata cand a avut loc o actiune dar si durata sau frecventa actiunii.
Ex.:
Când: today, yesterday, later, now, last year
Durata, pentru cât timp: all day, not long, for a while, since last year
Cât de frecvent: sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly

De obicei, adverbele de timp se aseaza la sfârsitul propozitiei sau emfatic, la începutul ei:
Ex.: One of my children wrote to me yesterday.
Later the boy understood the story.

Adverbele care indica durata se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei:
Ex.: She stayed in the house all day.
My mother lived in France for a year.

De retinut! For este intotdeauna urmat de o expresie de durata: for three days, for a week, for several years, for two centuries.
Since este intotdeauna urmat expresia unui moment punctual în timp: since Monday, since 1997, since the last war.

Adverbele de frecventa exprima frecventa unei actiuni si se aseaza de obicei in fata verbului principal, dar dupa verbele auxiliare (cum ar fi be, have, may, must):
I often eat vegetarian food. (in fata verbului principal)
You must always fasten your seat belt. (dupa verbul auxiliar must)
I have never forgotten my first kiss. (dupa verbul auxiliar have si in fata verbului principal forgotten)

Unele adverbe de frecventa exprima regularitatea incidentei unei actiuni si se plaseaza la sfarsitul prepozitiei:
This magazine is published monthly.
He visits his mother once a week.

Adverbe de fecventa: frequently, generally, normally, occasionally, often, regularly, sometimes, usually.

De retinut! Yet se foloseste in propozitii interogative sau negative:
Have you finished your work yet? No, not yet.
They haven't met him yet.
Still exprima ideea de continuitate. Se foloseste in propozitii pozitive sau interogative.
I am still hungry.
Do you still work for the BBC?

Ordinea adverbelor de timp
Daca este nevoie de mai multe adverbe de timp in aceeasi propozitie ordinea lor va fi:

Ordinea


Exemple

1: adverbe de durata
2: adverbe de frecventa
3: adverbe de timp


1 + 2 : I work (1) for five hours (2) every day.
2 + 3 : The magazine was published (2) weekly (3) last year.
1 + 3 : I was abroad (1) for two months (3) last year.
1 + 2 + 3 : She worked in a hospital (1) for two days (2) every week (3) last year.
Adverbe de siguranta si probabilitate

Acestea exprima cat de sigur este vorbitorul de actiunea sau evenimentul pe care il relateaza: certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly, surely, maybe, obviously, perhaps, possibly, really. Se aseaza in propozitie intre verbul auxiliar si verbul principal.
Ex.: He has certainly forgotten the meeting.

Pentru o formulare emfatica sau o reliefare a afirmatiilor, se aseaza în debutul frazei:
Ex.: Undoubtedly, Winston Churchill was a great politician.

De retinut! Surely asezat la inceputul propozitiei inseamna ca vorbitorul este convins de adevarul unei afirmatii, dar incearca sa obtina o confirmare: Surely you've got a bicycle?

Adverbe de grad

Aceastea exprima intensitatea sau gradul de indeplinire a actiunii unui verb, adjectiv sau adverb: almost, nearly, quite, just, too, enough, hardly, scarcely, completely, very, extremely.

Locul lor in propozitie este fie in fata adjectivului sau adverbului pe care il determina, fie in fata verbului principal:
Ex.: The water was extremely cold.
He was just leaving.
She has almost finished.

Enough, very, too
Enough inseamna "pana la punctul necesar pentru a..." si se plaseaza dupa adjectiv sau adverb:
Is your coffee hot enough? (adjectiv)
He didn't work hard enough. (adverb)
Too = "mai mult decat este necesar pentru..." si se aseaza in fata adjectivului sau adverbului:
This coffee is too hot. (adjective)
He works too hard. (adverb)
Very intareste sensul unui adjectiv sau adverb si se aseaza in fata acestora:
The girl was very beautiful. (adjectiv)
He worked very quickly. (adverb)

De retinut! Exista o diferenta importanta intre too si very:
Very exprima un fapt: He speaks very quickly.
Too sugereaza existenta unei probleme: He speaks too quickly (for me to understand).

Alte adverbe asemanatoare lui very: extremely, especially, particularly, pretty, rather, quite, fairly, rather, not especially, not particularly.
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